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Wyeast Laboratories

New and Notable Frequently Asked Questions

We strive to answer all of your yeast related questions. If you have not found your answer on our site, please submit your question using our contact us form.  We will get back to you with an answer, and may even post your question here for others to read!

Click on each question to link down to the answers.

1. In regards to Wyeast 3711 French Saison yeast, is there anything in the yeast that will permanently reside in my plastic fermentations bucket, as with some lambic yeasts, and/or the brettanomyces/wild yeast strains? While I'm sure you can't give me an exact run down on what precisely is in this particular variety, I at least hope the question makes sense as if the yeast will stay in the bucket, I want to separate it out so I don't slowly end up with it in all of my various plastic parts. Tom
2. This is regarding time in primary for beer. Lately, many bloggers and homebrew writers started to question the 7-10 days primary fermentation time, and are suggesting skipping secondary unless adding fruit, or if it is a high gravity beer. Primary for 14 days instead and rack to keg or bottles. Is this accurate and also suggested by Wyeast? Steve
3. Good afternoon. I have used your yeast #4021 Pasteur Champagne during the last 7 years in Europe. I used to start from apple juice concentrated, add sugar, SO2, and then citric acid. The result was a dry, clean taste and good profile apple wine 9,5% - 10% alc. bv. This wine was an intermediate product because I diluted it with water+sugar + flavours to prepare a cider 4,5% (carbon dioxide was added just before bottling). I need to develop a new product and I am writing because I need help to choose the best yeast for this purpose. This new product will be prepared starting from a fresh apple juice (i.e. single strength apple juice), 10-11Bx. Furthermore, because of regional laws (I am in Quebec), I cannot add any sugar and water during the process. I would like to produce a 4,5-5% alc. cider with residual sugar 30gr/l. So I am wondering...how can I make it? I should find a yeast capable to ferment until the residual sugar is about 30gr/l (that is what happens in beer fermentation) or should I stop the fermentation (example using the cold) once I have reached the desired level of alcohol and sugar? I could eventually add some more apple juice just before the final filtration in case I cannot have 30 gr/l at the end of the fermentation. Can you then suggest to me the right yeast for this kind of product? I should start a pilot batch in only 2 weeks, please help! Kind regards and thanks for your time. Nicola
4. How long should the primary and secondary fermentation last using your #1056 American Ale activator with a porter OG 1.051? I seem to get stuck at 1.020, and not sure if I am waiting long enough to try to force lower gravity. Michael
5. I am a home brewer and have recently split a high gravity wort (SG 1.096) in half (15 liters each) and fermented one with Wyeast 9093-PC Imperial Blend and the other with Wyeast 9097-PC Old Ale Blend. While the Old Ale completed the bulk of its fermentation much faster than the Imperial, the Imperial gradually overtook the Old Ale to finish drier (over about 2 1/2 weeks). The final gravity of the Old Ale is 1.022 and the FG of the Imperial is 1.012; the latter much more attenuated than I was anticipating. In fact, I expected the Old Ale to ferment out drier than the Imperial because of the brett component of that blend. Both beers are now in secondary fermenters at about 5C after showing no signs of fermentation for a few days, and are due to be racked off the sediment this week for longer cold storage before bottling. I am just wondering whether to expect any more fermentation from the brett in the Old Ale? There is a noticeable brett character present in the beer currently, but I am guessing that the high alcohol content may have prevented the brett from doing much work. So should I worry at all about exploding bottles? And secondly, is it common for Imperial to attenuate way beyond the range suggested on your website, in this case about 88% apparent, 71% actual? Evan
6. Good evening, I am planning to make 5 gallons of hard cider using a combination of Gala and Rome apples. I am planning on using your #4766 Cider yeast, but I do have a couple of questions. Is there any difference in yeast activity if I heat the cider to 160F or add potassium metabisulfite to the must to kill the bacteria? Is there a preferred must pH range for the yeast? Lastly, above what starting gravity should I use more then one package of yeast? Thank you for your help. Dennis
7. Yeast Extract vs. Wyeast Nutrient. What's the difference? If I use your #4007 Malo-lactic Blend culture, do I need to add yeast extract (like the book I have says) or does it already have enough nutrients in it? David
8. I used Wyeast Brewer's Choice Nutrient Blend in a 5 gallon batch of beer, and I accidentally put in 1 teaspoon into the wort, instead of 1/2 a teaspoon... I didn't notice until it was too late! Will this have a negative effect on the fermentation or overall finished product? I was just wondering if I ruined the batch... please let me know! Thanks! Dana
9. I have used your #3944 Belgian Witbier strain and noticed a ton of clove taste after fermenting at 65-67F. I was just wondering if this was normal or not with this yeast. Also, is there a way to limit the clove taste in the yeast by temperature? Thanks, Chris
10. I am Homebrewing my first lager with your #2633 Octoberfest Lager Blend. It has been about 24 hours @ 50 degrees F, and I am starting to notice some activity. However, it appears as though a few clumps of yeast (about an inch or two in diameter) have dislodged from the bottle and are floating on top. They have not settled back down to the bottom after a number of hours. Will this affect further fermentation? Adam
11. I have a few questions about your sake yeast. I read that some sake yeast is a type of lager yeast. Is this true? Your website says the minimum fermentation temp is 60F so I imagine it will go dormant. My plan is to make some kind of lager barley wine. Do you have any information on barley sugar fermentation characteristics from the sake yeast even at higher temp? If the sake yeast is a bad idea, what is the best choice for a big burly lager beer? Experimentation and time will answer all my questions, but any help would be tremendous. Thank you. Aaron
12. I bought some of your Weihenstephan Wheat #3068 yeast propagator packs. I decided to split these into a couple of separate starters expecting to further step on to make enough for a 5 gal batch. Everything went ok regarding splitting the yeast and storing it into bottles in my fridge. Coming up to the brew day, I took out one and got rid of the spent wort and replaced it with new wort to get it active and propagate enough for a larger batch. I tasted the green beer that came off it. It definitely had the flavors and aromas I was looking for (banana and clove). Brew day came and I put my new starter in with the wort (it was fermenting for 2 days before pitching). It took off like a rocket and even overflowed my fermenting vessel. I took a sample, and it was down to 1.013 after 3 days, still fermenting away but slower. I tasted some of the wort. The flavors that were there in the starter were now not there. They were more citrus and no banana or clove. How and when do these develop or will they develop now? Do they occur towards the end of the ferment? Generally the starter and the main wort have been fermented around the same temp of 18 -20 etc. Barry
13. Re: 1388 Belgian Strong Ale Yeast I'm wondering if you could enlighten me a little as to the difference in ester and phenol production between various temps with this yeast. Purely non-scientifically, I’ve noticed malt aromas around 68, spice around 74 and fruit around 78. Any chance you've got some slightly more rigorously ascertained info handy? James
14. I am making a high alcohol Barleywine at 12% and really want to make it as sparkling as champagne at 4 vols or more. I am looking to make the beer in the Champagnois method and disgorge, though it might not be possible. I have heard that dropping a bit of wine yeast (or this one English yeast that can go to 25%abv) into it in order to carb it up. I have heard that the alcohol will prove to be a bit tough on the yeast. What would you advise in order to make the beer sparkling enough and at the same time be able to have the yeast survive? What yeast should I use? I am really looking to be able to make this over the course of a few months, so the starter I think is most important. Do you have any suggestions? Matt
15. How big does my starter need to be for an OG of 1.10? Is it beneficial to add two activator packages to a 2000ml starter? Does it double? Eric
16. Hi, the technical section of your website states: "Oxygen requirement is variable depending on: yeast strain employed, original gravity of wort, and wort trub levels. Some yeast strains have higher oxygen requirements than others. It is generally safe to assume that you need at least 10ppm of oxygen. 10ppm will supply adequate oxygen in most situations." I am using your Activator packs in a starter and would like to just aerate the starter, not the full 10 gallons of wort. Could you specify the oxygen requirements in terms of millions of yeast cells per ml of wort? The problem is that I recognize that 10ppm in 1000 ml of wort is providing the yeast with much less oxygen than 10ppm in 10 GALLONS of wort. So I assume the oxygen requirements are really based upon the concentration of cells in solution. Also, does Wyeast have strain specific oxygen requirement information? It would be great if, with the other statistics that you publish (such as attenuation), you could publish approximate oxygen requirements, or at least say "high" "medium" "low" etc. Thanks a lot! Shaun
17. Hi Wyeast, I tried the Schneider Weisse Original in the US in a bottle and have been somewhat underwhelmed. I recently tried this on tap in Munich, however, and was blown away by its taste and aroma. Which one of the hefeweizen yeast strains that you carry do you think would produce a beer most similar to Schneider Weisse Original? Also, with this strain, what fermentation temperature or temperature profile would you recommend? Any guidance you could give would be greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance, Matt
18. Hello, I am preparing to homebrew my very first Belgian ale. I have what I consider a very good recipe as far as malt and hops go, and am looking for a good yeast to go with it. Could you please tell me which breweries these yeasts were originally pulled from? WY1762 WY3522 WY1214 What I'm looking for is the Rochefort strain, but would also like to use the Chimay strain at some point. Thanks a ton! Martin
19. I have just a general query regarding your yeast temperature guidelines. I'm using Wyeast #1275 Thames Valley Ale to home brew ale. Choosing some of the hottest days of the year to brew, I am fermenting at around 75 degrees F which is above the 62-72 temperature specification listed for the yeast. What are the consequences of doing so? Thanks in advance. Mark
20. Hello~ I have an Oktoberfest recipe that I would like to try something different with: I do not have the capability of lager temps. My ferment room is steady at about 68 degrees. I have tried the European Ale strain in the past but found it a bit sulfur-like and I generally have ZERO LUCK with the straight German Ale strain for whatever reason. I was thinking of trying either the #1728 Scottish Ale strain or the #1318 London Ale III strain for this. Do you have any thoughts or alternate suggestions? Larry
21. My yeast was shipped to the wrong address (Apartment office). I can assume the interior temperature there is between 72 and 76. It's been there since Friday @ 12 noon. So by the time I get it, it will be at that ambient temp for ~72 hours. Should I be worried about the yeast viability or performance? Thank you in advance. Jeff
22. We brewed this weekend and pitched with your #2124 Bohemian Lager yeast. The web site said that we can use this yeast strain with ale type fermenting temperatures. The web site states 75°. We started the fermentation at 72°-74° on Sunday evening, and now it’s bubbling away. Can you tell me what the range of ale temperatures we can use for the remaining time of the fermentation? Thanks for your help, Dave
23. I brewed 3gal Belgian Pale Ale using Wyeast #1388 Belgian Strong Ale on 8/6/09. I kept the fermentation temperature around 70 for the first two days and then let the yeast ramp if it wanted to. The ambient room temp is 78 deg F. I made a double starter, chilling the first and pouring off the liquid before starting the second starter. I then pitched the entire starter at full krausen to the wort at 67 deg F. The mash was 60 min at 152 deg F, 3lb 5oz German Pils., 11oz Amer 2 row, 1.5 lb Munich 10L. I used both yeast nutrient and Irish moss at 15min left in boil. I checked the gravity today and am stuck at 1020 with seemingly no activity. I have heard this yeast can stick, so what are my options at this point? Daryl
24. I have a problem with an activator pack of your #4184 Sweet Mead yeast that I am using. I pitched a Braggot at orig. gravity of 1.121 and used a starter of the pack and 3oz of light malt extract. I let the starter grow at 70 degrees for 4 hours. I pitched at 72 degrees Fahrenheit and aerated with a stone and an oxygen tank for 3 min. The wort was pitched over 72 hours ago and I took a gravity reading indicating no activity. I tried re-aerating with no success. I am kind of out of solutions and so is my supplier since he said that the yeast was handled properly on his and my end. Is there anything that I am missing or overlooked? Please help me out. Dan
25. Hi, I purchased some of your yeast for home brewing wine. It says it is a yeast strain suitable for brewing Belgian style ale. On the pack it says to use dried malt extract as a starter. I just wanted to know if I can use my own malt extract from the malted barley I have. What implications would this have? Thank you, Conor

Answers


1. In regards to Wyeast 3711 French Saison yeast, is there anything in the yeast that will permanently reside in my plastic fermentations bucket, as with some lambic yeasts, and/or the brettanomyces/wild yeast strains? While I'm sure you can't give me an exact run down on what precisely is in this particular variety, I at least hope the question makes sense as if the yeast will stay in the bucket, I want to separate it out so I don't slowly end up with it in all of my various plastic parts. Tom

Hi Tom, Thank you for the email. There is no reason 3711 French Saison should be treated differently than any other strain. There is always a chance that any yeast (beer yeast) can reside (and remain viable) in scratches on plastic, but it will have little affect on the fermentation because it is present at low concentration. Once nutrients are deplete, the beer yeast cultures can not continue to grow. Brettanomyces and bacteria can cause problems when present at even low concentrations because they can continue to expand following nutrient depletion and their by-products are recognized at low concentration. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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2. This is regarding time in primary for beer. Lately, many bloggers and homebrew writers started to question the 7-10 days primary fermentation time, and are suggesting skipping secondary unless adding fruit, or if it is a high gravity beer. Primary for 14 days instead and rack to keg or bottles. Is this accurate and also suggested by Wyeast? Steve

Hi Steve, Thank you for the email. We recommend managing your fermentations based on density (gravity) rather than time. A transfer to a secondary fermenter is not necessary with many types of ales; however it may be a benefit with other styles (lagers and high gravity beers). Most standard gravity beers (<1.065 OG) can be refrigerated in the primary fermenter following attenuation and proper diacetyl rest. The beer can then be kegged or bottled. Extended conditioning time (>10 days) following attenuation in the primary may be detrimental to the beer. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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3. Good afternoon. I have used your yeast #4021 Pasteur Champagne during the last 7 years in Europe. I used to start from apple juice concentrated, add sugar, SO2, and then citric acid. The result was a dry, clean taste and good profile apple wine 9,5% - 10% alc. bv. This wine was an intermediate product because I diluted it with water+sugar + flavours to prepare a cider 4,5% (carbon dioxide was added just before bottling). I need to develop a new product and I am writing because I need help to choose the best yeast for this purpose. This new product will be prepared starting from a fresh apple juice (i.e. single strength apple juice), 10-11Bx. Furthermore, because of regional laws (I am in Quebec), I cannot add any sugar and water during the process. I would like to produce a 4,5-5% alc. cider with residual sugar 30gr/l. So I am wondering...how can I make it? I should find a yeast capable to ferment until the residual sugar is about 30gr/l (that is what happens in beer fermentation) or should I stop the fermentation (example using the cold) once I have reached the desired level of alcohol and sugar? I could eventually add some more apple juice just before the final filtration in case I cannot have 30 gr/l at the end of the fermentation. Can you then suggest to me the right yeast for this kind of product? I should start a pilot batch in only 2 weeks, please help! Kind regards and thanks for your time. Nicola

Hi Nicola, Thank you for the email. Fermentations are typically limited by alcohol concentration or available (fermentable) sugar. Most strains will tolerate 10% alcohol (ales and lagers) with wine strains having higher tolerance (~14-16% ABV). The fermentable sugar in your juice will be completely consumed by any yeast strain you choose, although flavor profile will change with different strains. The best way to control this may be to use sorbates to inhibit fermentation once you reach the desired level of residual sugar. Using cold temperatures to stall the fermentation will leave an unstable product. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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4. How long should the primary and secondary fermentation last using your #1056 American Ale activator with a porter OG 1.051? I seem to get stuck at 1.020, and not sure if I am waiting long enough to try to force lower gravity. Michael

Hi Michael, Thank you for the email. Under standard conditions, this beer should reach terminal gravity in 5-8 days. Failure to reach attenuation is typically caused by one of three things; poor aeration, poor yeast health, or low temperatures. If using air, the maximum dissolved oxygen levels attainable are 8 ppm. To achieve this, the carboy needs to be shaken vigorously for 45 seconds. Just splashing or light shaking will not achieve adequate levels of DO and will result in sluggish or stalled fermentations. Using pure O2 through a stone allows you to increase the DO to Wyeast recommended levels of 12-15 ppm. Poor aeration is the most common cause of stalled fermentations. The health of the culture (Activator) can be measured by monitoring the rate of swell after rupturing the nutrient packet. The package is designed to start swelling (@ 70F) in 4-6 hours. Extended time to swell indicates a possible decrease in health. Low temperature (<65F) will greatly extend the time to reach terminal. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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5. I am a home brewer and have recently split a high gravity wort (SG 1.096) in half (15 liters each) and fermented one with Wyeast 9093-PC Imperial Blend and the other with Wyeast 9097-PC Old Ale Blend. While the Old Ale completed the bulk of its fermentation much faster than the Imperial, the Imperial gradually overtook the Old Ale to finish drier (over about 2 1/2 weeks). The final gravity of the Old Ale is 1.022 and the FG of the Imperial is 1.012; the latter much more attenuated than I was anticipating. In fact, I expected the Old Ale to ferment out drier than the Imperial because of the brett component of that blend. Both beers are now in secondary fermenters at about 5C after showing no signs of fermentation for a few days, and are due to be racked off the sediment this week for longer cold storage before bottling. I am just wondering whether to expect any more fermentation from the brett in the Old Ale? There is a noticeable brett character present in the beer currently, but I am guessing that the high alcohol content may have prevented the brett from doing much work. So should I worry at all about exploding bottles? And secondly, is it common for Imperial to attenuate way beyond the range suggested on your website, in this case about 88% apparent, 71% actual? Evan

Hi Evan, Thank you for the email. The Imperial Ale Blend includes a highly attenuative Saison strain which is responsible for the low terminal gravity. The Brett in the Old Ale may be able to slowly metabolize some wort sugars and cause additional CO2 production. Condition this beer in the secondary fermenter at 60F and monitor density drop over a few weeks. Once the density becomes stable, the beer is ready to bottle. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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6. Good evening, I am planning to make 5 gallons of hard cider using a combination of Gala and Rome apples. I am planning on using your #4766 Cider yeast, but I do have a couple of questions. Is there any difference in yeast activity if I heat the cider to 160F or add potassium metabisulfite to the must to kill the bacteria? Is there a preferred must pH range for the yeast? Lastly, above what starting gravity should I use more then one package of yeast? Thank you for your help. Dennis

Hi Dennis, Thank you for the email. Depending on the method used, pitch the yeast 24 hours following sulfite addition or once the must has cooled to 70 F. There should not be a large difference in yeast activity, assuming sulfites have been reduced. #4766 will ferment in low pH conditions (>3.2) and is a very alcohol and sugar tolerant strain. Additional yeast may be required if exceeding 20 Brix. Nutrient additions will be required if using high levels of sugar. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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7. Yeast Extract vs. Wyeast Nutrient. What's the difference? If I use your #4007 Malo-lactic Blend culture, do I need to add yeast extract (like the book I have says) or does it already have enough nutrients in it? David

Hi David, Thank you for the email. Most of the nitrogen in Wyeast Nutrient is supplied by DAP and Ammonium Sulfate. Although these are great yeast nutrients, these synthetic sources are not readily metabolized by ML bacteria. Yeast extract or ML nutrient will be a better nutrient for your ML cultures. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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8. I used Wyeast Brewer's Choice Nutrient Blend in a 5 gallon batch of beer, and I accidentally put in 1 teaspoon into the wort, instead of 1/2 a teaspoon... I didn't notice until it was too late! Will this have a negative effect on the fermentation or overall finished product? I was just wondering if I ruined the batch... please let me know! Thanks! Dana

Hi Dana, Thank you for the email. The beer will be fine. Significantly high dosages of nutrient are required to alter the flavor of the beer. Also, the additional nutrient will not harm the yeast. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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9. I have used your #3944 Belgian Witbier strain and noticed a ton of clove taste after fermenting at 65-67F. I was just wondering if this was normal or not with this yeast. Also, is there a way to limit the clove taste in the yeast by temperature? Thanks, Chris

Hi Chris, Thank you for the email. Clove and Phenolics are typical by-products of #3944 fermentations. Limiting 45C mash rests which produces phenolic pre-cursers (ferulic acid) may help reduce clove. Also, increasing the fermentation temperature (72F) will increase the ester profile which can balance or overshadow excessive clove Phenolics. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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10. I am Homebrewing my first lager with your #2633 Octoberfest Lager Blend. It has been about 24 hours @ 50 degrees F, and I am starting to notice some activity. However, it appears as though a few clumps of yeast (about an inch or two in diameter) have dislodged from the bottle and are floating on top. They have not settled back down to the bottom after a number of hours. Will this affect further fermentation? Adam

Hi Adam, Thank you for the email. Floatation (foam production) is common for all strains (ales and lagers). Lagers are considered bottom fermenting strains because colder temperatures slow fermentation activity and reduce the amount of floatation. Your fermentation is fine. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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11. I have a few questions about your sake yeast. I read that some sake yeast is a type of lager yeast. Is this true? Your website says the minimum fermentation temp is 60F so I imagine it will go dormant. My plan is to make some kind of lager barley wine. Do you have any information on barley sugar fermentation characteristics from the sake yeast even at higher temp? If the sake yeast is a bad idea, what is the best choice for a big burly lager beer? Experimentation and time will answer all my questions, but any help would be tremendous. Thank you. Aaron

Hi Aaron, I recommend using 2124 Bohemian for your big lager fermentation. Sake strains are temperature and alcohol tolerant, however may not efficiently metabolize the larger malt sugars found in beer wort. Be sure to pitch an adequate quantity of yeast (use multiple packages or make a starter) and use plenty of O2 and nutrient. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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12. I bought some of your Weihenstephan Wheat #3068 yeast propagator packs. I decided to split these into a couple of separate starters expecting to further step on to make enough for a 5 gal batch. Everything went ok regarding splitting the yeast and storing it into bottles in my fridge. Coming up to the brew day, I took out one and got rid of the spent wort and replaced it with new wort to get it active and propagate enough for a larger batch. I tasted the green beer that came off it. It definitely had the flavors and aromas I was looking for (banana and clove). Brew day came and I put my new starter in with the wort (it was fermenting for 2 days before pitching). It took off like a rocket and even overflowed my fermenting vessel. I took a sample, and it was down to 1.013 after 3 days, still fermenting away but slower. I tasted some of the wort. The flavors that were there in the starter were now not there. They were more citrus and no banana or clove. How and when do these develop or will they develop now? Do they occur towards the end of the ferment? Generally the starter and the main wort have been fermented around the same temp of 18 -20 etc. Barry

Barry, These flavors develop during fermentation, not during aging. The flavors you listed will decrease from the time of the end of fermentation and throughout aging. What you experienced can be explained by examining pitch rate. 3068 will produce the banana ester (isoamyl acetate) when the yeast is pitched at low rates compared to normal pitch rates. Between 3-6 million cells/ ml seems to be optimum for isoamyl acetate production when using 3068. From 6-12 million cells/ml, it diminishes. Over 12 million, it is typically not noticeable. I think in the final brew, your pitch rate was high enough that you did not see the isoamyl acetate production you would like to have seen. For future brews, I recommend cutting your pitch rate in half. Please let me know if you have other questions. Jess
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13. Re: 1388 Belgian Strong Ale Yeast I'm wondering if you could enlighten me a little as to the difference in ester and phenol production between various temps with this yeast. Purely non-scientifically, I’ve noticed malt aromas around 68, spice around 74 and fruit around 78. Any chance you've got some slightly more rigorously ascertained info handy? James

Hi James, Thank you for the email. Ester synthesis increases with increasing temperature and decreasing pitch rate. Phenolics are controlled by the yeast's ability to convert ferulic acid to phenolic compounds ("POF+" presence of phenolic off flavor gene) and the level of ferulic acid in the wort. Ferulic acid is extracted from malt optimally at 45C. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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14. I am making a high alcohol Barleywine at 12% and really want to make it as sparkling as champagne at 4 vols or more. I am looking to make the beer in the Champagnois method and disgorge, though it might not be possible. I have heard that dropping a bit of wine yeast (or this one English yeast that can go to 25%abv) into it in order to carb it up. I have heard that the alcohol will prove to be a bit tough on the yeast. What would you advise in order to make the beer sparkling enough and at the same time be able to have the yeast survive? What yeast should I use? I am really looking to be able to make this over the course of a few months, so the starter I think is most important. Do you have any suggestions? Matt

Hi Matt, Thank you for the email. A Champagne strain (Wyeast 4021) will be an excellent choice for bottle conditioning this beer. Additional sugar (dextrose or sucrose) will be required at bottling. Bottle condition with 1-1.5 million cells per ml. Wine strains will readily ferment simple sugars and are alcohol tolerant; however they will struggle with larger malt sugars making Champagne yeast a poor choice for primary fermentation. 1084 Irish Ale will be a nice strain for your primary fermentation. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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15. How big does my starter need to be for an OG of 1.10? Is it beneficial to add two activator packages to a 2000ml starter? Does it double? Eric

Hi Eric, Thank you for the email. I recommend pitching your fermenter with enough yeast to achieve 18-24 million cells per ml. 2 Activators into 2L will result in approximately 0.5 doublings and when pitched into 5 gal will deliver 17 million cells per ml. This may be OK but additional yeast into your starter or increasing your starter volume will yield higher rates. Propagation protocols can be calculated using the Wyeast Pitch Rate and Growth Calculator located on our website. http://www.wyeastlab.com/hb_pitchrate.cfm I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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16. Hi, the technical section of your website states: "Oxygen requirement is variable depending on: yeast strain employed, original gravity of wort, and wort trub levels. Some yeast strains have higher oxygen requirements than others. It is generally safe to assume that you need at least 10ppm of oxygen. 10ppm will supply adequate oxygen in most situations." I am using your Activator packs in a starter and would like to just aerate the starter, not the full 10 gallons of wort. Could you specify the oxygen requirements in terms of millions of yeast cells per ml of wort? The problem is that I recognize that 10ppm in 1000 ml of wort is providing the yeast with much less oxygen than 10ppm in 10 GALLONS of wort. So I assume the oxygen requirements are really based upon the concentration of cells in solution. Also, does Wyeast have strain specific oxygen requirement information? It would be great if, with the other statistics that you publish (such as attenuation), you could publish approximate oxygen requirements, or at least say "high" "medium" "low" etc. Thanks a lot! Shaun

Hi Shaun, Thank you for the email. We do not have a chart on specific O2 requirements per strain, but this may be something we will provide in the future. 10-15 ppm will cover most strains. You are correct in needing to breakdown ppm O2 per cell. Multiple small (<15 ppm) O2 additions will most likely be necessary. It will not be beneficial to dissolve high levels (>15 ppm) of O2 into you starter. Other factors including time, stone (porosity, surface area, pore size), temperature, starter density, and O2 flow rate will affect DO levels actually achieved. Try measuring DO in a flask of wort (same starter vol.) at different times of O2 injections. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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17. Hi Wyeast, I tried the Schneider Weisse Original in the US in a bottle and have been somewhat underwhelmed. I recently tried this on tap in Munich, however, and was blown away by its taste and aroma. Which one of the hefeweizen yeast strains that you carry do you think would produce a beer most similar to Schneider Weisse Original? Also, with this strain, what fermentation temperature or temperature profile would you recommend? Any guidance you could give would be greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance, Matt

Hi Matt, Thank you for the email. Our #3068 Weihenstephan Wheat is a great choice for this beer. Ferment your wort at 68 and pitch 5 gal with one Activator. High pitch rates (multiple packages or making a starter) will reduce the desired ester (banana) profile. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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18. Hello, I am preparing to homebrew my very first Belgian ale. I have what I consider a very good recipe as far as malt and hops go, and am looking for a good yeast to go with it. Could you please tell me which breweries these yeasts were originally pulled from? WY1762 WY3522 WY1214 What I'm looking for is the Rochefort strain, but would also like to use the Chimay strain at some point. Thanks a ton! Martin

Hi Martin, Thank you for the email. Our strains have origins similar to the following breweries. 1214 Chimay 1762 Rochefort 3522 A'chouffe I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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19. I have just a general query regarding your yeast temperature guidelines. I'm using Wyeast #1275 Thames Valley Ale to home brew ale. Choosing some of the hottest days of the year to brew, I am fermenting at around 75 degrees F which is above the 62-72 temperature specification listed for the yeast. What are the consequences of doing so? Thanks in advance. Mark

Hi Mark, Thank you for the email. Increasing fermentation temperature will increase the fermentation rate and production of higher alcohols and esters. This will not be detrimental to the culture. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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20. Hello~ I have an Oktoberfest recipe that I would like to try something different with: I do not have the capability of lager temps. My ferment room is steady at about 68 degrees. I have tried the European Ale strain in the past but found it a bit sulfur-like and I generally have ZERO LUCK with the straight German Ale strain for whatever reason. I was thinking of trying either the #1728 Scottish Ale strain or the #1318 London Ale III strain for this. Do you have any thoughts or alternate suggestions? Larry

Hi Larry, Thank you for the email. I recommend trying Wyeast #2112 California Lager. Keeping the fermenter in a water bath (possible adding some ice to the bath) can maintain temperatures in the mid 60'sF. The fermentation will result in beer with nice lager character (even if temp remains at @ 68F). Another option is Wyeast #2124 Bohemian Lager. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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21. My yeast was shipped to the wrong address (Apartment office). I can assume the interior temperature there is between 72 and 76. It's been there since Friday @ 12 noon. So by the time I get it, it will be at that ambient temp for ~72 hours. Should I be worried about the yeast viability or performance? Thank you in advance. Jeff

Hi Jeff, Thank you for the email. Yeast viability and vitality will slowly decrease over time. Increases in temperature (>38F) will greatly increase the decline. That being said, this yeast is probably still fine to use, but will not store well. Use the yeast as soon as possible. Viability/vitality can be measured by monitoring the rate of package swell following rupture of the inner nutrient packet. Our packages are designed begin swelling within 4-8 hours following activation. If you have concerns over the health of the cultures, pitch the yeast into a 2L starter and monitor density drop with hydrometer readings (should be complete 24-36 hours). Do not use the yeast if density drop is slow. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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22. We brewed this weekend and pitched with your #2124 Bohemian Lager yeast. The web site said that we can use this yeast strain with ale type fermenting temperatures. The web site states 75°. We started the fermentation at 72°-74° on Sunday evening, and now it’s bubbling away. Can you tell me what the range of ale temperatures we can use for the remaining time of the fermentation? Thanks for your help, Dave

Hi Dave, Thank you for the email. #2124 can give decent lager character when fermented at Ale temperatures, but it is best to keep it as cold as possible. 65F is generally achievable by keeping your fermenter in a water bath with periodic ice additions (ice in the bath not the beer). I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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23. I brewed 3gal Belgian Pale Ale using Wyeast #1388 Belgian Strong Ale on 8/6/09. I kept the fermentation temperature around 70 for the first two days and then let the yeast ramp if it wanted to. The ambient room temp is 78 deg F. I made a double starter, chilling the first and pouring off the liquid before starting the second starter. I then pitched the entire starter at full krausen to the wort at 67 deg F. The mash was 60 min at 152 deg F, 3lb 5oz German Pils., 11oz Amer 2 row, 1.5 lb Munich 10L. I used both yeast nutrient and Irish moss at 15min left in boil. I checked the gravity today and am stuck at 1020 with seemingly no activity. I have heard this yeast can stick, so what are my options at this point? Daryl

Hi Daryl, Thank you for the email. 1388 fermentations can stick. Rouse the fermenter (gentle agitations through rocking) and keep warm. The fermentation should slowly attenuate, but it may take a couple weeks. Monitor the progress with hydrometer readings every few days. Confirming fermentability of the wort with a forced fermentation test will indicate the target terminal gravity. I recommend using dried yeast for this test. Forced Ferment Test Protocol: Decant 1 cup (250 ml.) wort or partially fermented beer into a container (Mason Jar) with 50% head space Add 15 ml. (1 Tbs) yeast slurry* or 3 g (1 tsp) dried yeast Cover loosely with foil or lid. Incubate at 75° F 24-36 hr. Agitate frequently by swirling/shaking or use a stir plate on low speed Allow yeast to settle Measure density I hope that this helps. Let me know how it turns out. Cheers, Greg
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24. I have a problem with an activator pack of your #4184 Sweet Mead yeast that I am using. I pitched a Braggot at orig. gravity of 1.121 and used a starter of the pack and 3oz of light malt extract. I let the starter grow at 70 degrees for 4 hours. I pitched at 72 degrees Fahrenheit and aerated with a stone and an oxygen tank for 3 min. The wort was pitched over 72 hours ago and I took a gravity reading indicating no activity. I tried re-aerating with no success. I am kind of out of solutions and so is my supplier since he said that the yeast was handled properly on his and my end. Is there anything that I am missing or overlooked? Please help me out. Dan

Hi Daniel, Thank you for the email. The most likely cause of the long lag time is a combination of low pitch rate with possible reduced viability with inhospitable growth conditions. The health of cultures will slowly decline even under ideal storage conditions (34F). Any rise in temperature during storage will greatly affect the shelf life of the culture. Our products are manufactured with a 6 month shelf life (this package is in the last few weeks of this). Viability/ Vitality could be measured (estimated) with monitoring the rate of swell after rupturing the inner nutrient packet. The packages are designed to start expansion 4-8 hours following activation. Making a starter can increase the cell count of the pitch as well as "nurse" the culture back into health. Pitching one Activator into a 2L starter will result in one doubling of the culture in 18-36 hours. In this case the smaller (1L) starter will only yield about 0.5 doubling in 12-18 hours and a lot less in four hours. This Braggot is an extremely difficult environment (extremely high osmotic stress) for the yeast and will require a high pitch rate of healthy culture for successful fermentation. Your addition of pure O2 will be beneficial to reaching attenuation (4184 will only tolerate ~ 11% ABV) although it will not reduce the lag time. I recommend adding additional culture (possibly following expansion in a 2L starter) as well as nutrient to increase the chances for this fermentation to reach completion. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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25. Hi, I purchased some of your yeast for home brewing wine. It says it is a yeast strain suitable for brewing Belgian style ale. On the pack it says to use dried malt extract as a starter. I just wanted to know if I can use my own malt extract from the malted barley I have. What implications would this have? Thank you, Conor

Hi Conor, Thank you for the email. There will be no problem in using wort from your brewery for propagations. The wort should have a density of approximately 1.040. DME is typically recommended for ease of use. I hope that this helps. Cheers, Greg
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